RAP02759
Rennes (Ille-et-Vilaine)
Hôtel-Dieu / rue de la Cochardière
Les vestiges antiques de l’Hôtel-Dieu
Diagnostic archéologique
sous la direction de
Dominique Pouille
Avec les collaborations de
Inrap Grand-Ouest
juin 2012
Rapport
final
d’opération
e
Dia
g
nostic
ar
c
o
lo
g
q
u
Laurent Aubry
Paul-And Besombes
Philippe Boulinguiez
Arnaud Desfonds
Adrien Etienvre
Jessica Freitas
raldine Jouquand
Françoise Labeaune-Jean
Pierrick Leblanc
bastien Oeil de Saleys
Vincent Pommier
Pierre Poilp
Myriam Texier
Rennes (Ille-et-Vilaine)
Hôtel-Dieu secteur Cochardière
Rapport final d’opération
Diagnostic archéologique
sous la direction de
Dominique Pouille
Avec les collaboration de
Laurent Aubry
Paul-And Besombes
Philippe Boulinguiez
Arnaud Desfonds
Adrien Etienvre
Jessica Fretas
Géraldine Jouquand
Françoise Labeaune-Jean
Pierrick Leblanc
Sébastien Oeil de Saleys
Pierre Poilpré
Vincent Pommier
Myriam Texier
Inrap Grand-Ouest
37 rue du Bignon CS 67737, 35577 Cesson-Sévigné cedex
Tél. 02 23 36 00 40, grand-ouest@inrap.fr
Mai 2012
Rapport final d’opération
Diagnostic archéologique
Code INSEE
35 238
Nr site
Entité archéologique
Arrêté de
prescriptionSRA
SRA 2011/076
Système d’information
Code Inrap
DA 05 044101
Sommaire
Fiche Signalétique p.1
Générique de l’opération p.3
Notice scientifique p.4
1.1 Le site et son environnement p.5
1.1.1 Le contexte géographique et géo
logique du site. p.5
1.1.2 Le contexte archéologique p.5
1.2 Modalités d’intervention p.12
1.2.1 Le diagnostic : modalités d’intervention et enregistrement des données. p.12
1.2.2 Objectifs et déroulement de la phase d’étude. p.12
2. Résultats p.15
2.1 La tranchée 1 (Fig.8) p.15
2.2 La tranchée 2 (fig.14) p.17
2.3 La tranchée 3 (fig.19) p.22
2.4 La tranchée 4 (fig.24) p.26
2.5 La tranchée 5 (fig.29) p.31
2.6 La tranchée 6 (fig.35) p.35
2.7 La tranchée 7 (fig.51, 52) p.48
2.8 La tranchée 8 (fig.59) p.54
2.9 La tranchée 9 (fig.66) ² p.59
2.10 La tranchée 10 (fig.66) p.61
2.11 La tranchée 11 (fig.66) et (fig.75) p.64
3. Conclusion p.69
Table des figures p.73
Bibliographie p.79
Etudes annexes p.81
Etude céramique p.81
Etude numismatique p.97
Etude anthropologique p.100
Datations C14 p.129
Piéces administratives p.135
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canalisation
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2 - Sédiment brun mêlé à du mortier jaune et nombreux
cailloutis homogène (fossé).
3 - Sédiment brun-gris meuble homogène avec quelques pierres.
4 - Paléosol.
5 - Sédiment argileux brun meuble homogène avec quelques pierres.
6 - Sédiment brun mêlé à du substrat avec cailloux.
7 - Niveau de cailloutis.
8 - Sédiment argileux brun-vert meuble homogène.
9 - Niveau de cailloutis.
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16
18
14
Sépulture 1001 Sépulture 1002
1 - Blocs de schiste surmonté d’un niveau de graviers compactés
(niveau de chaussée antique).
2 - Sédiment limoneux très homogène gris-vert.
3 - Graviers mêlés à de l’argile jaune.
4 - Sédiment argileux gris foncé avec cailloux avec
graviers et charbon de bois.
5 - Sédiment brun avec quelques pierres et graviers (paléosol remanié).
6
10
1- Substrat.
2 - Paléosol : Limon argileux orangé-brun avec petits cailloux de quartz et charbon de bois.
3 - Limon argileux brun clair avec petits gravillons de quartz et traces de charbon de bois.
4 - Limon argileux brun-orangé avec petits gravillons de quartz et traces de charbon de bois.
5 - Trottoir : Argile jaune avec petits gravillons de quartz et traces d’oxydation.
6 - Limon argileux brun-verdâtre avec petits cailloux de quartz : niveau de circulation.
7 - Limon argileux brun-verdâtre (perturbation).
8 - Niveau de circulation : Limon argileux brun avec avec petits cailloux de quartz dammés.
9 - Limon argileux brun foncé avec blocs de quartz, céramique moderne (remblais moderne).
10 -Limon argileux brun foncé avec blocs de quartz, céramique moderne (remblais moderne).
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
7
8
9
10
10 - Sédiment brun-noir avec fragments de tuiles.
11 - Maçonneries de schiste pourpre modernes.
12 - Sédiment argileux brun foncé avec petit cailloutis meuble homogène.
13 - Sédiment argileux brun-vert meuble homogène avec cailloux (perturbation ou trace de caniveau).
14 - Sédiment homogène de couleur noire avec cilloux, céramiques et TCA.
15 - Sédiment brun-jaune avec quelques blocs de pierres, mortier, TCA et céramique (niveau de démolition).
16 - Sédiment argileux brun homogène avec cailloutis et oxydation.
17 - Sédiment brun avec quelques pierres (paléosol remanié).
18 - Radier de fondation antique composé de blocs de schiste.
Fossé
Mur antique
Chaussée antique
Sépultures non fouillées vues en coupe
Tr 1
NN
NN
Echelle : 1/125e
0 5m
M 1
Mur moderne
1 - Sédiment gris argileux avec inclusion de charbon de bois.
2 - Sédiment argileux brun sombre avec inclusion de cailloux.
3 - Sédiment argileux brun homogène avec cailloutis et oxydation.
4 - Sédiment brun-gris homogène avec oxydation et inclusion de substrat
et cailloutis jaune.
5 - Niveau argileux brun-jaune.
6 - Sédiment brun homogène avec inclusion de cailloutis.
7 - Sédiment brun mêlé à du mortier jaune et nombreux
cailloutis homogène.
8 - Niveau de cailloutis.
9 - Sédiment gris très fin (schiste pulvérulent).
10 - Sédiment brun-gris meuble homogène avec quelques pierres.
11 - Radier de schiste de la chaussée.
12 - Niveau de cailloutis.
1111
12
Bord ouest de la chaussée restitué
Tranchée d’adduction d’eau
41.1441.14
Echelle : 1/50e
0 1 5m
Echelle : 1/50e
0 1m
Echelle : 1/50e
0 1m
Echelle : 1/50e
0 1m
Tranchée 1
F 1
F 1
F 2
F 2
F 1
15
F 1
F 2
Fig.8 : Plan et coupes tranchée 1. © Arnaud Desfonds
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40.97n
coupe 3
sépulture 7003
sépulture 6001
40.84
38.1938.19
39.86
39.89
39.87
39.68
39.66
39.56
39.39
39.26
39.88
39.90
39.09
39.18
40.73
40.63
40.99
41.17
41.12
41.00
41.00
39.73
40.10
40.13
40.01
40.36
Echelle : 1/125e
0 5m
Puits
M 17M 17
15
1 1
Tranchée 6 - coupe 1
1
3
4
6
8
9
12
13
11
14
16
17
18
30
2
21
22
23
24
25
26
29
19
15
1
O
E
5
7
5
7
10
10
2727
28
28
paléosol
39.00 m
NGF
40.00 m
NGF
1 - Mur : mortier jaune-orange avec blocs de schiste.
2 - Fondation de plaquettes de schiste.
3 - Niveau de circulation : mélange de galets, béton, mortier
et plaquettes de schiste.
4 - tranchée de fondation ou récupération : sédiment argileux brun
avec plaquettes de schiste, nodules de terre cuite et mortier.
5 - Niveau de circulation : mortier jaune.
6 - Sédiment argileux brun avec plaquettes de schiste, huître et
nodules de mortier.
7 - Niveau de circulation : mortier jaune.
8 - Argile brune homogène avec inclusions de galets, terre cuite, mortier,
céramique et charbon de bois.
9 - Niveau de mortier avec gros blocs de schiste et huîtres.
10 - Mur : dalles de schiste avec mortier jaune.
11 - Argile grise riche en huîtres, céramique, galets, TCA et plaquettes de
schiste pilées.
12 - Argile brun foncée homogène.
13 - Argile brun clair avec plaquettes de schiste, TCA, nodules de mortier
et charbon de bois.
14 - Argile brun-jaune très homogène avec peu de petites plaquettes de schiste.
15 - Niveau de circulation : Plaquettes de schiste avec argile verte.
16 - Argile brun-jaune avec nombreuses plaquettes de schiste (sol ou radier).
17 - Argile brune avec plaquettes.
18 - Argile brun-rouille avec quelques galets.
19 - Argile gris clair avec galets et charbon de bois.
20 - Argile gris foncé avec charbon de bois.
21 - Niveau de circulation : mortier orangé avec galets et plaquettes de schiste.
22 - Argile brun foncé verdâtre avec dalle de schiste, galets et plaquettes de schiste.
23 - Niveau de circulation : argile jaune avec cailloutis.
24 - Remblais : argile brune avec nombreuses plaquettes de schiste.
25 - Argile brun -vert avec quelques plaquettes de schiste et charbon de bois.
26 - Argile brun foncé avec quelques plaquettes, huîtres et charbon de bois.
27 - Niveau de circulation : argile jaune avec quelques galets et nombreux
charbons de bois.
28 - Niveau argileux brun foncé avec galets et nombreux charbons de bois.
29 - Argile gris-brun avec quartz, galets et charbon de bois.
Tranchée 6 - coupe 3
remblai et enrobé actuel
S
N
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
39.00 m
NGF
40.00 m
NGF
1 - Sédiment très argileux brun-vert avec rares charbons de bois (paléosol).
2 - Sédiment très argileux gris avec niveau de plaquettes de schiste dans le fond,
quelques tuiles, céramique et charbon de bois.
3 - Niveau de schiste gris-vert avec petit niveau orangé sur le dessus.
4 - Sédiment très argileux gris-brun avec quelques cailloux de schiste,
tuiles et charbon de bois.
5 - Sédiment argileux orangé-jaune avec quelques tuiles.
6 - Sédiment très argileux brun-gris, beaucoup de tuiles, quelques blocs
de schiste dans le fond avec os et céramique.
7 - Sédiment argileux brun, peu d’inclusion et rares charbons.
8 - Sédiment argileux brun plus foncé que us 7 avec blocs de schiste
et charbon de bois.
9 - Niveau de blocs de schiste et briques avec traces de mortier jaune.
10 - Sédiment argileux gris-vert avec blocs de schiste et charbon de bois.
11 - Sédiment argileux brun avec petit cailloutis de schiste.
12 - Remblais de terre noire avec perturbations modernes.
Tranchée 6 - coupe 2
1 1
3
6
19
18
17
11
12
13
14
15
16
10
9
20
O
E
22
22
5
5
4
a
b
c
88
7
7
1 - Paléosol.
2 - Niveau de circulation orangé avec cailloutis.
3 - Hérisson de blocs de schiste.
4 - a : Niveau argileux gris-vert assez meuble avec fragments
de tuiles et os.
b : Niveau très argileux compact avec petit cailloutis de schiste.
c : Niveau de petit cailloutis ; 1er état d’un niveau de circulation.
5 - Niveau de circulation orangé avec cailloutis et céramiques.
6 - Sédiment argileux gris-beige assez compact avec quelques
blocs de schiste et charbon de bois.
7 - Couche de mortier blanc avec tuiles.
8 - Niveau de schiste très compact.
9 - Sédiment argileux brun-gris mêlé à de nombreux petits cailloux
assez compact avec rares charbons de bois.
10 - Sédiment argileux brun-gris mêlé à quelques petits cailloux
assez compact avec rares charbons de bois.
11 - Hérisson de blocs de schiste (suite de l’us 3).
12 - Niveau de schiste très compact.
13 - Niveau de petits cailloutis très compact.
14 - Sédiment argileux brun mêlé à quelques cailloux et tuiles.
15 - Niveau de sol de béton posé sur un fin cailloutis.
16 - Niveau de sol de béton posé sur un mélange de cailloutis et de sédiment brun.
17 - Agrégat de schiste en plaquettes avec blocs dans sédiment argileux gris-vert.
18 - Sédiment argileux brun sombre meuble avec blocs de schiste, rares tuiles
et céramiques (niveau de sépultures).
19 - Sédiment argileux brun sombre meuble avec quelques blocs de schiste,
rares tuiles et céramique (niveau de sépultures).
20 - Sédiment argileux brun sombre avec peu d’inclusions de matériaux.
ossements humains
39.00 m
NGF
40.00 m
NGF
Tr 6
Tranchée 6
sondage profond
sondage profond
sondage profond
NN
NN
Zone perturbée par la caveZone perturbée par la cave
coupe 1
coupe 2
coupe 1
coupe 2
M 28
M 28
M 27
M 27
M 16
M 16
M 16
M 16
M 19
M 19
M 15
M 15
M 14
M 14
M 13
M 13
M 12 M 12
M 10
M 10
M 9
M 9
M 11
M 11
Echelle : 1/50e
0 1m
Echelle : 1/50e
0 1m
Echelle : 1/50e
0 1m
Lambeau de sol de mortier
Sol de mortier restitué
Mur antique
Sépultures fouillées
Sépultures non fouillées
Fossé
M 13
M 14
6001
6011
6100
Puits
Fig.35 : Plan et coupes tranchée 6. © Arnaud Desfonds
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